In July, the YÖK had also ordered all 1,577 of the country’s university deans to leave their posts; although they may reapply for their jobs, the move seemed designed to tighten Erdoğan’s political control of the higher education sector. And it told all academics who were out of the country to return home. Meanwhile, the science agency TÜBİTAK has suspended its fellowships and postponed all major project-funding calls.

The Association of University Councils says that the government’s measures after the coup are “systematically harming science in Turkey”.